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Learned Helplessness


This page has a listing of Dr. Martin E.P. Seligman’s books and other publications on the topic of Learned Helplessness.

If you would like to see a complete listing of Dr. Seligman’s publications, please see his Curriculum Vitae


Garber, J. and Seligman, M.E.P. (Eds.). (1980).  Human Helplessness: Theory and Applications.  New York: Academic Press.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1991).  Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. Second edition. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Peterson, C., Maier, S., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1993).  Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control. New York: Oxford University Press.


Seligman, M.E.P., Maier, S.F., and Geer, J.  (1968).  The alleviation of learned helplessness in dogsJournal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 256-262.

Maier, S.F., Seligman, M.E.P., and Solomon, R.L.  (1969).  Pavlovian fear conditioning and learned helplessness.  In Campbell, B.A., and Church, R.M. (Eds.), Punishment.  New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 299-343.

Seligman, M.E.P.  (1969).  For helplessness: Can we immunize the weak? Psychology Today, June, 42-45.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Groves, D. (1970).  Non-transient learned helplessness. Psychonomic Science, 19, 191-192.

Seligman, M.E.P., Maier, S.F., and Solomon, R.L. (1971).  Consequences of unpredictable and uncontrollable trauma.  In Brush, F.R.  (Ed.),  Aversive conditioning and Learning.  New York: Academic Press.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1972).  Learned helplessnessAnnual Review of Medicine, 23, 407-412.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1972).  Learned helplessness and depression. Proceedings of The XVIIth International Congress of Applied Psychology.  Brussels:  Editest.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1973).  Fall into helplessness.  Psychology Today, 7, 43-48.

Miller, W.R. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1973). Learned helplessness, depression and the perception of reinforcement.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 62-73.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1974).  Depression and learned helplessness.  In R.J. Friedman and M.M. Katz (Eds.), The Psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research, Winston-Wiley.

Hiroto, D.S. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Generality of learned helplessness in man. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 311-327.

Miller, W.R. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Depression and learned helplessness in man. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 228-238.

Rosellini, R.A. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Frustration and learned helplessnessJournal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 104, 149-157.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Beagley, G. (1975). Learned helplessness in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 534-541.

Seligman, M.E.P., Rosellini, R.A., and Kozak, M.J. (1975).  Learned helplessness in the rat: Time course, immunization and reversibilityJournal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 88, 542-547.

Miller, W.R., Seligman, M.E.P., and Kurlander, H. (1975).  Learned helplessness, depression, and anxietyJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 161, 347-357.

Maier, S.F. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976).  Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 3-46.

Miller, W.R. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976). Learned helplessness, depression, and the perception of reinforcement. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14, 7-17.

Rosellini, R.A., Binik, Y.M., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976).  Sudden death in the laboratory ratPsychosomatic Medicine, 38, 55-58.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1976). Learned helplessness and depression in animals and men. In J.T. Spence, R. Carson, and J. Thibaut (Eds.), Behavioral Approaches to Therapy.  Morristown, N.J.:  General Learning Press, 111-126.

Klein, D.C., Fencil-Morse, E., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976).  Learned helplessness, depression, and the attribution of failureJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 508-516.

Klein, D.C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976). Reversal of performance deficits and perceptual deficits in learned helplessness and depressionJournal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 11-26.

Rosellini, R.A. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976). Failure to escape shock after repeated exposure to inescapable shockBulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 7, 251-253.

Hannum, R.D., Rosellini, R.A., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1976).  Retention of learned helplessness and immunization in the rat from weaning to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 12, 449-454.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1977).  Reversing learned helplessness and depression.  In P. Zimbardo, Psychology and Life (11th Edition).  Glenview, IL: Scott-Foresman.

Seligman,  M.E.P. (1977).  Helplessness.  In B. Wolman (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Psychology, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology. New York: Human Sciences, 5, 338.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Cook, L. (1978). Learned helplessness and depression.   In G.E. Finley and G. Marin (Eds.), Readings in Contemporary Psychology.  Mexico City: Trillas, 270-282.

Rosellini, R.A. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1978). Role of shock intensity in the learned helplessness paradigmAnimal Learning and Behavior, 6, 143-146.

Garber, J., Fencil-Morse, E., Rosellini, R.A. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1979). Inescapable shock as a weanling impairs adult discrimination learning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 197-206.

Alloy, L.A. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1979). On the cognitive component of learned helplessness in animals and man. In G. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation.  New York: Academic Press, 219-276.

Altenor, A., Volpicelli, J.R. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1979).  Debilitated shock escape if produced by both short- and long-duration inescapable shock: Learned helplessness vs. learned inactivityBulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 14, 337-339.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Altenor, A. (1980).  Coping behavior:  Learned helplessness, physiological change, and learned inactivity.  (Seligman-Weiss Debate) Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 459-512.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1980).  A learned helplessness point of view.  In L. Rehm (Ed.), Behavior Therapy for Depression.  New York: Academic Press, 123-142.

Abramson, L.Y., Garber, J., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1980).  Learned helplessness in humans: An attributional analysis.  In J. Garber and M.E.P. Seligman (Eds.), Human Helplessness.  New York: Academic Press, 3-35.

Raps, C., Reinhard, K.E., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1980).  Reversal of cognitive and affective deficits associated with depression and learned helplessness by mood elevation in patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 342-349.

Miller, S.M. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1980).  The reformulated model of helplessness and depression: Evidence and theory. In R. Neufeld (Ed.), Psychological Stress and Psychopathology. New York:  McGraw-Hill. 149-178.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1981).  Helplessness and attributional style in depression: Parts I and II.  Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykoilogforening, 18, 3-18, and 53-59.

Visintainer, M.A., Volpicelli, J.R., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1982).  Tumor rejection in rats after inescapable or escapable shockScience, 216, 437-439.

Raps, C.S., Peterson, C., Jones, M., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1982).  Patient behavior in hospitals: Helplessness, reactance, or both?  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 1036-1041.

Simkin, D.K., Lederer, J.P., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1983).  Learned helplessness in groupsBehaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 613-622.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1983).  Learned helplessness and victimizationJournal of Social Issues2, 103-116.

Volpicelli, J.R., Ulm, R.R., Altenor, A., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1983).  Learned mastery in the rat.  Learning and Motivation, 14, 204-222.

Smith, R. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1983).  Black and lower class children are more susceptible to helplessness induced, cognitive deficits following unsolvable problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Alloy, L.B., Peterson, C., Abramson, L.Y., and Seligman, M.E.P. (1984). Attributional style and the generality of learned helplessnessJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 681-687.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1984).  Hilflosigkeit, Attributionsstil, und Depression. In F.E. Weinert and Rainer H. Kluwe (Eds.),  Metakognition, Motivation, und Lernen.  Stuttgart:  Kohlhammer, 164-191.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Visintainer, M.A. (1985).  Tumor rejection and early experience of uncontrollable shock in the rat.  In F.R. Brush and J.B. Overmier  (Eds.), Affect, conditioning, and cognition:  Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum,  203-210.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Elder, G. (1985).  Learned helplessness and life-span development. In A. Sorenson, F. Weinert, L. Sherrod (Eds.), Human development and the life course: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 377-427.

Peterson, C. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1985).  The learned helplessness model of depression: Current status of theory and research.  In E.E. Beckman and W.R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression:  Treatment, assessment and research.  Homewood, IL:  Dorsey, 914-939.

Seligman, M.E.P. and Peterson, C. (1986).  A learned helplessness perspective on childhood depression: Theory and research.  In M. Rutter, C.E. Izard, and P. Read (Eds.), Depression in Young People: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. New York:  Guilford,  223-249.

Burns, M.O. and Seligman, M.E.P. (1991).  Explanatory style, helplessness, and depression.  In C.R. Snyder and D.R. Forsyths (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology. New York:  Pergamon Press,  267-284.

Seligman, M.E.P., & Isaacowitz, D.M. (in press). Learned helplessness. In The Encyclopedia of Stress. San Diego: Academic Press.

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